That's no surprise: Consolidation of the media in the hands of a few corporate Goliaths has resulted in fewer people creating more of the content we see, hear and read. One impact has been a narrower range of perspectives; another is the virtual disappearance of hard-hitting, original, investigative reporting.
"Corporate media has abdicated their responsibility to the First Amendment to keep the American electorate informed about important issues in society and instead serves up a pabulum of junk-food news," says Peter Phillips, head of Sonoma State University's Project Censored.
Every year, researchers at Project Censored pick through volumes of print and broadcast news to see which of the year's most important stories aren't receiving the kinds of attention they deserve. Phillips and his team acknowledge that many of these stories weren't "censored" in the traditional sense of the word--no government agency blocked their publication--and some even appeared (briefly, and without follow-up) in mainstream journals.
But according to Project Censored, every one of this year's picks merited prominent placement on the evening news and the dailies' front pages. Instead, they went virtually ignored.
This year's list speaks directly to the point FCC critics have raised: Stories that address fundamental issues of wealth concentration and big-business dominance of the political agenda are almost entirely missing from the national debate. From the dramatic increase in wealth inequality in the United States to the wholesale giveaway of the nation's natural resources to the Bush administration's attack on corporate and political accountability, events and trends that ought to be dominating the presidential campaign and the national dialogue are missing from the front pages.
Here are Project Censored's top 10 examples of major stories that have been relegated to the most obscure corners of the media world.
In fact, the Federal Reserve Board's most recent Survey of Consumer Finances supplement on high-income families shows that in 1998, the richest 1 percent of households owned 38 percent of the nation's wealth. The top 5 percent owned almost 60 percent of the wealth.
"We are much more unequal than any other advanced industrial country," New York University economics professor Edward Wolff told Third World Traveler.
But that's just part of the problem. "Most Americans believe we take from people at the top to benefit those below," Pulitzer Prize winning New York Times investigative reporter David Cay Johnston said in a BuzzFlash interview. But our tax system is actually set up such that "people who make $30,000 to $500,000 ... give relief to those who make millions, or tens and hundreds of millions of dollars a year."
The United States is not alone: Today, almost one-sixth of the world's population--940 million people--"already live in squalid, unhealthy areas, mostly without water, sanitation, public services, or legal security," wrote John Vidal in The Guardian. A recent UN report predicted that, absent drastic change to reverse "a form of colonialism that is probably more stringent than the original," one in every three people worldwide will live in slums within 30 years. That's a bigger threat to democracy and global stability than al Qaeda and international terrorism.
But recently, lawyers have found a way to seek at least a modicum of justice for victims. The Alien Tort Claims Act, a 215-year-old law originally passed to prosecute pirates for crimes committed on the high seas, allows non-citizens to sue any individual or corporation present on U.S. soil.
Human rights lawyers have pursued 100 cases under ATCA since 1980. Defendants have included former high-ranking government and military officials from El Salvador, Guatemala, Argentina, Paraguay, the Philippines (including ex-president Ferdinand Marcos), Indonesia, Bosnia, Ethiopia and elsewhere. And although the law can only be used to pursue monetary damages rather than prison time, it has often resulted in victims being awarded millions--and in the perpetrators sometimes fleeing the country rather than paying up.
Ten years ago, victims began using the act to go after corporate profiteers, too: It was thanks to ATCA, for example, that Holocaust survivors were able to seek redress from the Swiss banks and companies that profited from the slave labor of concentration camp internees during World War II.
But Attorney General John Ashcroft's Justice Department has set its sights on the act, claiming in a brief last year that the law threatens "important foreign policy interests" associated with the war on terrorism. Yet hardly a word has been written in the mainstream media about the Bush administration's attack on the one, main legal recourse left in the United States for victims to seek redress for human rights violations.
One of the first White House moves--on the very day Bush was inaugurated--was to fire engineer Tony Oppegard, the leader of a federal team investigating a 300-million-gallon slurry spill at a coal-mining site in Kentucky. "Black lava-like toxic sludge containing 60 poisonous chemicals choked and sterilized up to 100 miles of rivers and creeks," wrote environmental lawyer Robert F. Kennedy in The Nation. The EPA dubbed it "the greatest environmental catastrophe in the history of the Eastern United States."
Bush then appointed industry insiders to top posts within the EPA in charge of mine safety and health.
In another case, a week after the EPA released a study to congressional staff about the toxic effects on groundwater of hydraulic fracturing--a process of injecting benzene into the ground to extract oil and gas, used by Halliburton, Vice President Dick Cheney's old company--the agency revised its findings in response to "industry feedback" to indicate that the practice posed no threat after all.
In the days and months following the World Trade Center attack, the EPA released more than a dozen statements claiming that the air quality in the surrounding "control zone" was safe--despite evidence that asbestos dust was present in quantities well above the 1 percent safety benchmark. The agency opened up the area to the public a mere week after the attacks, allowing Wall Street to reopen and cleanup activities to begin. Some 88 percent of rescue workers suffered ear, nose and throat ailments, and 78 percent suffered lung maladies as a result, according to a Mount Sinai School of Medicine study. Half suffered persistent respiratory problems up to a year later.
Last November, the EPA arranged for Syngenta, the Swiss manufacturer of Atrazine, to take over federal research of its product, the most widely used weed-killer in the United States. This occurred despite evidence that high concentrations of Atrazine in groundwater may be responsible for 50 percent below-normal semen counts in men in U.S. farming communities; is associated with high incidences of prostate cancer; and has resulted in grotesque deformities in frogs when present "at one-thirtieth the government's 'safe' three parts per billion level," wrote Kennedy.
The administration has also suppressed scientific findings on global warming in a dozen major government studies during the past two years, according to Kennedy.
The problem isn't limited to the EPA. In fact, government interference in scientific research has gotten so bad that 60 of the country's top scientists--including 20 Nobel laureates--issued a statement last February citing the ways the Bush administration has distorted scientific data "for partisan political ends" and calling for regulatory action.
There have been dozens of scientists willing to blow the whistle--normally, a reporter's dream come true. But news coverage hasn't come close to reflecting the gravity of the problem.
In study after study, research pointed to the use of depleted uranium (DU) in American and British weaponry as the culprit. But authorities concentrated their efforts into obfuscating the problem--downplaying its reach, discrediting scientists and ailing military personnel, and erecting a smoke screen around the "syndrome's" root causes.
More recently, the Uranium Medical Research Center, an independent group of U.S. and Canadian scientists that's conducted studies of Afghan civilians, found overwhelming evidence that the United States is also using non-depleted uranium (NDU) in its weapons, which is far more radioactive than DU. "If the use of NDU indicates experimental application of new nuclear weapons, as the UMRC suggests, then it should alert the public that proliferation of small nuclear weaponry, proposed for some future use, has in fact already begun," wrote Stephanie Hiller in Awakened Woman.
At the International Criminal Tribunal for Afghanistan in Tokyo last December, a team of attorneys from Japan, the United States and Germany indicted President Bush on a number of war crimes charges--among them the use of DU weapons. Leuren Moret, president of Scientists for Indigenous People, testified that a U.S. government study conducted on the babies of Gulf War I veterans conceived after the soldiers returned home found that a full two-thirds suffered from serious birth defects or illnesses, including being born without eyes or ears, or with missing or malformed organs or limbs. In Iraq, Moret said, the defects are even worse. But those are just some of the images of war that we never see on the evening news.
(It's worth noting that a number of anti-nuke activists, including Tucson's Jack Cohen-Joppa, are distancing themselves from the Uranium Medical Research Center, saying that its claims are unverified and exaggerated. They make the case that this and other "radical extremist" groups are hurting the cause by making claims without science to back them up.)
Vice President Dick Cheney's infamous, secretive, industry-laden energy task force produced what can be boiled down to two main recommendations: "lower the environmental bar and pay corporations to jump over it," Werbach wrote.
For example, Congress has promised $3 billion in tax cuts to mining corporations to help them access natural gas embedded in underground coal deposits in Georgia's Powder River Basin. The Bureau of Land Management has calculated that miners will waste a full 700 million gallons of publicly owned water a year in the process--thereby sucking the region's underground aquifers dry and decimating local farms and wildlife.
The Bush administration's Healthy Forests Initiative essentially entails granting logging companies access to old-growth trees--and then subsidizing them for brush clearing. And even the giant sequoias that former president Bill Clinton sought to protect by creating a 327,000 national monument in the Southern Sierra Nevada just four years ago risk being logged at a rate of 10 million board-feet of lumber per year--a higher rate than allowed on surrounding national forest lands--in the name of "forest management."
All in all, the Bush administration has launched the greatest giveaway of public natural resources in more than a century. Yet, few in the mainstream media have bothered to analyze these plans and put the lie to the administration's rhetorical manipulations.
A switch to electronic voting might seem innocent enough at first--until you look at who's implementing it, and how. Indeed, the transfer represents the privatization of the voting process into the hands of a select few fervent GOP supporters who've insisted on keeping their operating systems and codes a trade secret--meaning that they enjoy absolute control over the entire voting process, including ballot counting and oversight. There is no paper trail.
One prime example is Diebold Inc., one of the nation's top e-voting machine manufacturers, whose equipment was responsible for the Florida debacle. Diebold already operates more than 40,000 machines in 37 states across the country. Many of these are in Georgia, which last November became the first state to conduct an election entirely with touch-screen machines. Oddly enough, incumbent Democratic governor Roy Barnes lost to Republican candidate, Sonny Perdue, 46 percent to 51 percent--"a swing from as much as 16 percentage points from the last opinion polls," wrote Andrew Gumbel in the Independent. In the same election, incumbent Democratic Sen. Max Cleland lost to his Republican challenger, Saxby Chambliss, thanks to "a last-minute swing of nine to 12 points." And in and around Atlanta, 77 memory cards went missing or were otherwise temporarily unaccounted for before the votes they'd registered could be counted.
Similar upsets occurred "in Colorado, Minnesota Illinois, and New Hampshire--all in races that had been flagged as key partisan battlegrounds, and all won by the Republican Party," Gumbel continued.
"It makes it really hard to show their product has been tampered with if it's a felony to inspect it," voting systems specialist and research fellow at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government Rebecca Mercuri told the Independent.
The other top two e-voting machine manufacturers, Sequoia and Election Systems and Software (ES&S), are equally suspect. Several of their executives have troubling track records of corruption and conflict of interest. All three companies are prominent Republican Party donors.
The effort has been a resounding success. With the help of Republicans in Congress, 85 extra federal judgeships were created under Ronald Reagan and George Bush (the First); Bill Clinton got nine. Now, seven out of 12 circuit courts are anti-abortion. Seven of the nine Supreme Court justices are Republican appointees--and it's been 11 years since a post has opened up, meaning another right-winger or two could be appointed sometime soon. During Bush Sr.'s tenure, one White House insider boasted that no one who wasn't a Federalist ever received a judicial appointment from the president.
One of George W.'s earliest moves in office was to consolidate the Federalist Society's power even further: He "simply eliminated the longstanding role in the evaluation of prospective judges by the resolutely centrist American Bar Association, whose ratings had long kept extremists and incompetents off the bench," wrote Martin Garbus in American Prospect. "Today, the Federalists have more influence in judicial selection than the ABA ever had."
The Society now counts Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-Utah), Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia and prominent members of the conservative American Enterprise Institute among its leadership. Attorney General John Ashcroft, Interior Secretary Gale Norton, Solicitor General Theodore Olson and White House Counsel Alberto Gonzalez--charged with approving all judicial nominations before passing them onto Congress--are all members.
As one might expect, the Federalists have consistently acted in favor of property rights over rights of the individual, business deregulation, creationist teachings and much of the rest of the right-wing agenda. But one of the principal victims has been the democratic process itself: Remember, it was the Supreme Court that stopped a hand count of 175,000 uncounted (largely Democratic) ballots in Florida, which could have cost Bush the 2000 presidential election. Conservative jurists have interfered with redistricting efforts to reverse the deliberate segregation of black and Latino voters, and have erected barriers to the participation of third party candidates in the electoral process.
Unless liberals miraculously spawn a radical turn-around in how federal judges--who enjoy lifetime terms--are appointed, one of George W.'s most longstanding legacies may very well be a hard-right judiciary that lasts for decades to come.
When George W. Bush took office in January 2001, he said that tackling the country's energy crisis would be a top priority. The United States faced nationwide oil and natural gas shortages, and a series of electrical blackouts were rolling across California. The president established the National Energy Policy Development Group and appointed former Halliburton CEO Dick Cheney as its head.
One of the big issues on the table was oil, which accounted for 40 percent of the nation's energy supply and provided fuel for the vast majority of the country's transportation--as well as its vast war machine. And, for the first time in history, the United States had become reliant on foreign imports for more than 50 percent of its oil supply.
But rather than lay the groundwork for converting the economy to alternative, renewable sources, NEPDG's report, later released by Bush as the National Energy Policy report in May 2001, promoted a central goal of "mak(ing) energy security a priority of our trade and foreign policy." In other words, Cheney's group wanted to find additional sources of oil overseas, and ensure U.S. access to that oil--whatever it took.
Documents recently obtained from Cheney's Energy Task Force as the result of a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit filed by the public-interest group Judicial Watch indicate that Cheney and his colleagues had their sights on the black gold under the Iraqi desert well before the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001.
Last July, the Commerce Department finally turned over records that included "a map of Iraqi oilfields, pipelines, refineries and terminals, as well as two charts detailing Iraqi oil and gas projects, and 'Foreign Suitors for Iraqi Oilfield Contracts,'" according to Judicial Watch's subsequent press release. There were also similar maps and charts for Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. The documents were dated March 2001.
"The major news media are beginning to pay much closer attention to the links between political turmoil abroad and the economies of oil at home," wrote Michael Klare in Censored 2005: The Top 25 Censored Stories. "Still, the media remains reluctant to explain the close link between the energy policies of the Bush administration and U.S. military strategy."
The administration, she argues in a federal lawsuit, allowed Sept. 11 to happen so that Bush and Co. could launch their seemingly endless, global "war on terror" for their own personal and financial gain. The suit uses the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act--a law created to go after the mafia--to charge the nation's leaders with conspiracy, obstruction of justice and wrongful death.
Her lawyer, Philip J. Berg, a former deputy attorney general of Pennsylvania, filed a 62-page complaint that included 40 pages of evidence. "Compelling evidence ... will be presented in this case through discovery, subpoena power by this court and testimony at trial," he wrote in a press release sent to 3,000 print and broadcast journalists announcing the lawsuit and read at a press conference on the court steps that day.
At the very least, the case presents the potential to uncover and publicize critical documents and testimony about the Bush administration's handling of the Al-Qaeda threat and its aftermath. But only Fox News showed up to the press conference--and it never ran anything on the topic.